🔸Consensus Mechanism

'Consensus' entails the collaborative decision-making among nodes within a network. Before committing transactions, these nodes must reach an agreement on which transactions to include in the upcoming block on the chain.

This process is comprised of two elements:

  • The mechanism for achieving consensus, to add transactions to blocks.

  • The implementation of Sybil protection and validator incentives.


SatNode currently adopts the AuRa (Authority Round) consensus model from Parity. In this model, validators alternate in signing blocks, and once a signed block is broadcasted to all validators and gains majority agreement on its validity, it becomes part of the chain. The addition of a new block occurs every 5 seconds, irrespective of transaction occurrences within that timeframe.

While, in theory, transaction finality in this model may involve some time, for practical purposes, a SatNode transaction can be regarded as finalized after a single block confirmation.

Sybil Protection & Incentives

SatNode employs the delegated Proof of Stake (dPoS) mechanism to enforce Sybil protection and align validator incentives. To engage in securing the network consensus, a node operator must stake a minimum amount of SND tokens, currently set at 100,000 SND.

The process of becoming a validator on SatNode is permissionless, requiring node operators to meet specific technical criteria. The staking of SND ensures that entities cannot create multiple seemingly distinct validators without incurring a substantial cost, thereby implementing Sybil protection. The maximum number of validators on SatNode is presently capped at 100.

Validators who successfully publish a block agreed upon during a consensus round are rewarded by the network protocol with newly minted SND tokens. Additionally, they receive transaction fees paid by users for the transactions included in the block.

Over time, validators can anticipate publishing a share of blocks commensurate with their overall stake. As SND utilizes dPoS, validators can enhance their share by attracting SND tokens from delegators.

Validators found in violation of consensus rules, such as failing to reveal random numbers, face the consequence of having their stake, including the contributions from delegators, frozen. This imposition serves as a robust incentive for validators to adhere to the desired behavior.

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